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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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January-March 2020
Volume 52 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-33

Online since Monday, March 30, 2020

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EDITORIAL  

National activities of professional concern and of importance: By the all india occupational therapists' association for the year 2019-2020 p. 1
Anil K Srivastava
DOI:10.4103/ijoth.ijoth_5_20  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Implementation of environmental modifications in reducing fear of falling and studying its relationship with activity level and activity restriction among older adults living in old-age home: A one-arm interventional study p. 3
Hansa Varshneya, Jay Vijay Sonawane
DOI:10.4103/ijoth.ijoth_3_20  
Background: Falls in older adults can cause severe physical injuries leading to activity restriction and subsequently adding to financial burden. Objectives: The objectives of our study were to assess the fear of falling in older adults living in old-age home, to implement cost-effective environmental modifications in old-age home, and to assess the relationship of fear of falling with activity level and activity restriction in older adults. Study Design: A one-arm interventional study design was chosen for the research. Methods: In this one-arm interventional study, 32 older adults, both males and females, were recruited from an old-age home, after their written informed consent. All the 32 older adults were assessed on the Survey of Activities and Fear of Falling in the Elderly (SAFFE) at baseline (preintervention), postintervention at 2 months, and at follow-up of 12 months. The architectural barriers in the old-age home were identified, and cost-effective environmental modifications were implemented. Statistical analyses of the SAFFE scores from baseline to follow-up were done. Results: The results revealed that fear of falling significantly reduced with the implementation of environmental modifications at postintervention at 2 months and at follow-up of 12 months. Fear of falling was positively correlated with the activity restriction (P = 0.0001, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.88-0.97) and fear of falling was negatively correlated with activity level (P = 0.0001, 95% CI = −0.97-−0.88) at baseline, postintervention, and follow-up. Conclusion: Our study showed that with the implementation of cost-effective environmental modifications, there was a significant reduction of fear of falling among older adults.
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AVAZ application (trial version) - A voice for the nonverbal children with autism spectrum disorder: A pilot study p. 8
Jay Vijay Sonawane, Hansa Varshneya
DOI:10.4103/ijoth.ijoth_2_20  
Background: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who are nonverbal lack communication skills. These children with ASD are unable to express their needs verbally even if they want to. The introduction of indigenous augmentative and alternative communication system (AAC) can be helpful in improving the social interaction. By using AAC, these children with ASD can easily communicate their needs with parents, teachers, or caregivers. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the importance and need of AVAZ application in special school-going children with ASD. Study Design: A pilot study for short term on small sample was conducted. Methods: A sample of eight special school-going children with ASD was selected. Each child had downloaded AVAZ application trial version on their smartphone from the Google Play Store. The number of sentences formed by the children over a period of 21 days was analyzed. The responses were recorded in the AVAZ application. Results: Percentage improvement was noted in forming relevant sentences through the application of each child from the 1st to 21st session ranging from 28.5% to 40%; five children showed the improvement but three children did not form any sentence neither relevant nor nonrelevant. Conclusion: Our study showed that the use of AVAZ application can be helpful in improving social interaction and can be utilized as a supporting tool for functional communication with others and for the better learning process in children with ASD.
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An investigation into medical practitioners' awareness of occupational therapy in South India: A survey p. 12
Karthik Mani, Minu Velan
DOI:10.4103/ijoth.ijoth_25_19  
Background: Occupational therapists (OTs) practice on both a first contact and a referral basis. Medical practitioners are often the primary referral source for OTs. To make timely and appropriate referrals to OT, it is imperative that the referral sources demonstrate a broader level of understanding of the OT profession. Objectives: The objective was to determine the level of awareness about OT among medical practitioners in South India. Study Design: Survey research design was used to conduct this study. Methods: An electronic survey was developed for this study and sent via E-mail and social media to medical practitioners in South India who were identified through convenience and snowball sampling. Data were collected from June 15, to July 31, 2019. Results: The number of responses received was 116. Eighty-two percent of the respondents reported either being familiar with or having heard about OT. Respondents who are specialists, work in the private sector, and practice their profession in a foreign country were more familiar with the OT profession and referred patients to OT. Gender and years of medical practice did not influence the familiarity level. Conclusions: Although many respondents have heard about OT and recognize it as a profession aligned with the rehabilitation of individuals with disabilities, their responses indicate that they have a limited understanding of the profession's scope of practice, OTs' role in some practice areas, and practice settings in which OT services are delivered. The consequence of this could be missed referrals.
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An association of imitation skills with language development in typically developing children versus children with autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay: An observational cross-sectional study p. 19
Harsha Sureshlal Bhatia, Pratibha Milind Vaidya
DOI:10.4103/ijoth.ijoth_27_19  
Background: Recent studies have shown a significant improvement in receptive and expressive language skills of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using imitation skills. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate and compare imitation skills of children with ASD, children with developmental delay (DD), and developmentally age-matched typically developing (TD) children and to associate imitation skills and receptive-expressive language development in children with ASD and in children with DD. Objectives:(1) To evaluate imitation skills in children with ASD and children with DD, (2) to compare imitation skills of children with ASD and children with DD with imitation skills of TD children, and (3) to correlate imitation skills with receptive-expressive language development of children with ASD and children with DD. Study Design: This was an observational cross-sectional study. Methods: The study included 12 children with ASD of 4-6 years, 12 children with DD of 4-6 years, and 12 TD children of age that matched the developmental age of children with ASD and children with DD. Denver II Prescreening Developmental Questionnaire was used to assess the developmental age, Motor Imitation Scale to assess the imitation skills, and MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory to assess the receptive-expressive language skills in 2 sessions of 40 min each. Results: No significant difference was found between the mean developmental age of ASD and TD (P = 1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.37, 17.29), ASD and DD (P = 1; 95% CI: −8.12, 7.79), and DD and TD (P = 1; 95% CI: 1.21, 17.12). This proves that the three groups were matched as per the developmental age. A significant difference was found on comparing the imitation skills of children with ASD and TD children (P = 0.005; 95% CI: −8, 0) and children with DD and TD children (P = 0.00; 95% CI: −7, −3). On correlating imitation skills with receptive-expressive language development of children with ASD, no significant correlation was found (P = 0.948; 95% CI: −0.559, 0.587 and P = 0.455; 95% CI: −0.388, 0.714, respectively), whereas a significant correlation was found between imitation skills and receptive-expressive language development of children with DD (P = 0.014; 95% CI: 0.182, 0.903 and P = 0.034; 95% CI: 0.059, 0.877, respectively). Conclusion: Imitation skills of children with ASD and children with DD are significantly affected compared to TD children. Imitation skills might not be the only contributing factor in development of language skills.
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To Analyze the effect of person-environment-occupation intervention model on stress and breast-feeding efficacy on mothers of preterm neonates: A randomized controlled study p. 24
Shailaja Sandeep Jaywant, Shrutika Surendra Patil, Deepakkumar Sohanlal Shrivastav
DOI:10.4103/ijoth.ijoth_1_20  
Background: Mothers of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are believed to experience high levels of distress, which affects breastfeeding ability in nursing mothers. The Person-Environment-Occupation (PEO) model based on environmental behavior approach was used as a tool to enhance coping behavior in mothers of preterm infants. Mothers were assessed for their stress levels and breastfeeding abilities and for environmental barriers and coping skills. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of PEO model as a tool in the intervention of postpartum mothers of preterm infants and on parental stress levels and breastfeeding efficacy. Study Design: A randomized, intervention-controlled study design was chosen for the research. Methods: A total of 52 postpartum mothers of preterm infants of gestational age 28 weeks to 36 weeks from NICU were included using a convenient sampling method using a lottery method for random allocation into two groups. The control group was given counseling regarding breastfeeding, handling, and positioning of infants, and the experimental group received intervention considering their individual environmental barriers and then implementing appropriate solutions with client agreement. The baseline scores were obtained on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Parental Stress Scale: NICU (PSS:NICU), Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale (BFSES) and followup was taken after 15 day. Results: The experimental group showed a significant reduction in PSS score at 95% confidence interval [CI]: 143.86-158.57 to 95% CI: 124.88-144.95, whereas the control group showed a PSS score at 95% CI: 135.16-151.19 to 95% CI: 127.45-144.62, with P = 1.23. On EPDS, the experimental group showed a score at 95% CI: 15.99-20.22 to 95% CI: 13.16-16.19 and the control group showed a minimal reduction at 95% CI: 14.18-18.81 to 95% CI: 13.75-17.64, with P = 0.65. No infant was able to receive breastfeed preintervention; however, some of them had shown the ability to attach while feeding. This has given the confidence of breastfeeding ability to mothers. Postintervention, the experimental group showed a significant difference in breastfeeding efficacy, with P = 0.0003. Conclusions: PEO intervention model can be recommended for improving mothers' breastfeeding capabilities in preterm neonates.
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NEWS AND INFORMATION Top

News and Information p. 30

DOI:10.4103/0445-7706.281641  
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