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   2020| April-June  | Volume 52 | Issue 2  
    Online since June 6, 2020

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A trend of cumulative trauma disorders in indian computer users: A comparison of surveys of the year 2009 versus 2019
Pooja Pankaj Mehta, Chandanbala Ojas Maru
April-June 2020, 52(2):50-55
Background: Digitalization has resulted in increased computer use. Computer use involves repetitive movements and relatively static posture of neck, limbs, and trunk, contributing in cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs). Over a decade, ergonomic awareness has increased, but CTDs have prevailed. Objective: A comparison of 2009 versus 2019 surveys was done to understand CTD trends and to find the significance of the number of people affected due to hours per day computer use. Study Design: A comparison of two surveys was conducted to research trend in occurrences of CTDs. Methods: The sampling was done using the snowball method. Both surveys had identical research methodology and collected data of (n) 100 computer users of India with an age range of 20–50 years, i.e., total of N = 200 in combined surveys. Participants filled in the self-explanatory questionnaire on Google Forms that assessed areas of CTD pain, severity of pain, and functional performance during pain. Results: Data analysis showed a higher percentage of pain in the neck, eye strain, and back pain in computer users in both 2009 and 2019 surveys. There was an overall decrease in the percentage of computer users affected with CTDs from 86% to 70%, but anatomically, an increase in percentages of pain in the upper limb, headaches, and lower-back pain was reported in 2019. The relation between duration of computer use and number of computer users affected was found to be nonsignificant for both 2009 and 2019 surveys (χ[2] = 3.5408; P = 1.7027 and χ[2] = 1.3739; P = 0.5031, respectively, 95% confidence interval [CI] [4.605, 7.378]). Spearman's correlation showed no significant correlation between duration of computer use and severity of pain in both 2009 (r = 0.078; P = 0.443, 95% CI [−0.120, 0.270]) and 2019 (r = −0.085; P = 0.398, 95% CI [−0.277, 0.114]). Conclusion: The comparison of 2009 and 2019 surveys showed an overall decrease in the percentage of computer users affected with CTDs in the 2019 survey. An increase in upper-limb pain, headache, and lower-back ache percentages was noted, while upper-back pain, neck pain, and eye strain percentage showed a decreasing trend in the 2019 survey. The percentage of computer users affected with pain in the neck, pain in the back, and eye strain was higher than other CTD areas in both the surveys. The duration of computer use did not show a significant correlation to the presence of CTDs among computer users in both surveys.
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Utilization of assistive devices in occupational therapy practice in Tamil Nadu, India: A statewide survey
Karthik Mani
April-June 2020, 52(2):43-49
Background: The provision of assistive devices (ADs) to enable function is a well-established component of occupational therapy (OT) practice. However, multiple client and therapist factors prevent the utilization of ADs in practice. Objectives: This study aimed to explore the utilization of ADs in OT practice in Tamil Nadu (TN). Study Design: The survey research design was used to conduct this study. A ten-item electronic survey was developed based on the research question. Methods: The survey was E-mailed to 295 occupational therapists in TN identified through convenience sampling. The survey link was also shared on four WhatsApp Messenger groups (Tamil Nadu Branch of All India Occupational Therapists' Association Official Group, OTist Group, Clinic OT, and Santosh Alumni) with many occupational therapists belonging to TN (snowball sampling). Data were collected between August 29, 2019, and September 20, 2019. Results: Thirty-five occupational therapists responded to the survey. Writing and eating utensils were the commonly prescribed ADs in TN OT practice. Client factors, cultural factors, lack of availability, cost, and therapists' skill may contribute to the limited usage of ADs in Indian OT practice. Innovating low-cost culturally acceptable ADs, educating stakeholders, and training practitioners on how to prescribe/utilize ADs in practice may mitigate the barriers related to ADs use. Conclusion: The usage of ADs in TN OT practice is limited. Multiple factors affect the utilization of ADs in the Indian context of practice. A multipronged approach focusing on innovative device development, advocacy, and skill development is needed to promote the utilization of ADs in Indian OT practice.
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All India occupational therapists' association's initiatives during corona virus disease - 2019 pandemic
Anil K Srivastava, Lakshmanan Sethuraman, Neeraj Mishra
April-June 2020, 52(2):35-36
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Rehabilitation in congenital muscular torticollis operated with Z-plasty: A case report
Vanashree Chandrashekhar Nalawade
April-June 2020, 52(2):56-60
Among the musculoskeletal congenital anomalies, congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) is the third most common. This condition presents with fibrosis of sternocleidomastoid muscle with increased lateral flexion on the same side and rotation on the opposite side. The objectives of the study were to reduce cervical deformity, mild facial asymmetry and to improve the range of motion of cervical lateral flexion and rotation. A 5-year-old female child had right torticollis for which she underwent Z-plasty. Evaluations were done on preoperative, postoperative day 1, 1 month, 4 months, and 7 months. Rehabilitation techniques included gradual stretching of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, splintage (static serial), positioning techniques, and play activities. Outcome measures observed were significant improvement in the posture of head tilt, range of motion using cervical goniometer, and facial asymmetry using photographs. This case report describes the importance of multidisciplinary treatment approach involving surgery, exercise therapy, play, and customized static serial splinting in the rehabilitation of CMT.
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The effect of balance and coordination rehabilitation exercises, on serving skills of students with special needs, undergoing vocational training in hospitality and catering department: A prospective one-arm interventional study
Deepa Vasant Udiaver
April-June 2020, 52(2):37-42
Background: Acquiring good serving skills is prerequisite for placement of special need students undergoing vocational training in hospitality and catering department in vocational school. Many studies have been done on balance and coordination on Down's syndrome and Autistic children, but there are no studies done so far on serving skills in these special need students. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of occupational therapy (OT) program incorporating rehabilitation balance and coordination training exercises in improving serving skills of special need children in catering and hospitality department, as effective serving skills was the prerequisites for securing a placement for internship in the hospitality industry. Study Design: A prospective one-arm interventional study was chosen for the research. Methods: A total of 15 students with special needs in the age group of 17–23 years who were to be graduated and had to secure internships were assessed. The study was conducted from June 2018 to March 2019. All students were assessed on Static Balance Test, Standing on Right Leg Scale (SORL) and Standing on Left Leg Scale (SOLL), and Hand to Wall Toss Test (HTWTT) for coordination. They were also assessed by the teachers' feedback form of serving skills which were recorded pre and post rehabilitation training. After the baseline scores were recorded, Phase 1 exercises of balance and coordination were given separately on stable surface for 12 weeks; first follow-up scores were recorded. Then, Phase 2 exercises started after 12 weeks which included combination of balance and coordination given on unstable surface and after 24 weeks the second follow readings were recorded. Results: An OT intervention exercises in the combination of balance and coordination was given to students on unstable surface to improve the serving skills of the students. At the end of 12 weeks post-exercises training it showed that SORL improved significantly (P < 0.001), 95% confidence interval (8.79–24.70). The SOLL also improved significantly (P < 0.009), 95% CI (7.59–24.14). Even the HTWTT improved significantly (P < 0.001), 95% CI (12.63–18.83); therefore, the training was significantly helpful in improving balance/coordination at the end of 12 weeks. At 24 weeks also post exercises training the SORL improved significantly (P < 0.009), 95% CI (13.34–33.06). The SOLL also improved significantly (P < 0.001), 95% CI (11.10–30.90). Similarly, HTWTT also improved significantly (P < 0.001), 95% CI (15.96–22.44). Therefore, the training was significantly helpful in improving balance/coordination at the end of 24 weeks. Teachers' feedback questionnaire showed significant improvement (P < 0.000), 95% CI (18.81–22.93). Conclusion: This study shows that OT intervention exercises in the combination of balance and coordination exercise given on unstable surface improve the serving skills of students.
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OTICON'2020 abstracts

April-June 2020, 52(2):61-78
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April-June 2020, 52(2):79-81
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