|Year : 2020 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 90-94
Normative data of developmental test of visual motor integration for Chennai population
Vignesh Raj S Deepak1, D Anbarasu2
1 Master's Student, SRM College of Occupational Therapy, Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Assistant Professor, SRM College of Therapy, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu, India
|Date of Submission||11-Sep-2020|
|Date of Acceptance||22-Sep-2020|
|Date of Web Publication||23-Oct-2020|
Assistant Professor, SRM College of Occupational Therapy, SRMIST, Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to establish normative data of the developmental test of visual-motor integration (VMI) among Chennai population. The study was also intended to (a) identify performance of chennai population on Principal test of VMI and Supplemental test of Visual Perception (VP) and Supplemental test of Motor coordination (MC) (b) To find the gender difference on performance of Principal test of VMI,Supplemental test of VP and Supplemental test of MC among Chennai population. Methodology: A quantitative research study. A total of 400 participants aged 15 to 19 years were engaged in the study from regular schools and Colleges located in Chennai using a convenience sampling method. The study participants were administrated with the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of VMI, 6th edition-long form. Results: The study found a statistically significant difference in the performance of a developmental test of VMI between each age group (F = 5.831, P = 0.001). The finding revealed that there was no gender difference in the principal test of VMI and the supplement test of MC. But there was a significant difference in the supplemental test of VP while comparing both genders (t = 2.76, P = 0.006). Girl's mean score in supplemental test of VP is higher relative to the boy's mean score in supplemental test of VP. Conclusion: The established normative data can be used in the evaluation of VMI and to plan the intervention and to identify effectiveness of the therapy.
Keywords: Beery visual-motor integration, Motor coordination, Normative data, Visual perception, Visual-motor integration
|How to cite this article:|
Deepak VS, Anbarasu D. Normative data of developmental test of visual motor integration for Chennai population. Indian J Occup Ther 2020;52:90-4
|How to cite this URL:|
Deepak VS, Anbarasu D. Normative data of developmental test of visual motor integration for Chennai population. Indian J Occup Ther [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Nov 26];52:90-4. Available from: http://www.ijotonweb.org/text.asp?2020/52/3/90/298984
| Introduction|| |
Visual-motor integration (VMI) is the degree to which visual perception (VP) and finger-hand movements are well coordinated. The development of VP and motor coordination (MC) forms the basis for VMI, which is associated with academic success. VP enables to understand a wide variety of visual characteristics, such as movement, depth perception, spatial relationships, facial expression, object discrimination. VP is defined as the total process responsible for the reception (sensory function) and cognition (mental function) of visual stimuli. The motor system controls accuracy, speed, power, and the rate of movement according to sensory feedback. Therefore, VMI is the integration, interaction, and coordination of visual receptive function, visual cognitive function, and motor function.
Visual-motor control abilities are crucial components of children's development and it is associated with many functional skills and participation in daily activities. Visual-motor deficits negatively impact on various occupational performance areas such as activities of daily living skills (difficulty in grooming, dressing, tying shoes) play (constructional activities, puzzles or ball games) which in turn affects the social participation.,
VMI dysfunction has also been associated with several academic related challenges in reading and mathematics, and found that VMI is a significant factor in handwriting performance. This, in turn, will have a negative effect on the child's scholastic performance at school.,, The children between the age of 15 to 18 years are appearing for their board exams in the Indian education system and having problems in VMI would lead to difficulty in the handwriting speed and legibility and other education related difficulties would affect their performance in the board exams. Currently individuals aged 15–19 years with VMI dysfunctions are referred to occupational therapy services with the diagnosis of Learning Disability, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or intellectual impairment. In addition to it, a study revealed that 90% of learning disabled individuals have VMI deficits. Literature strongly suggests that VMI skills are the predicting factors for handwriting and academic performance. Currently, Beery VMI is frequently used by many occupational therapists to screen individuals with VMI deficits.
The standardization for Developmental Test of VMI was done on the population of United States of America, in the manual of Beery VMI, it is mentioned as virtually a culture-free test. But research strongly suggests that there is a cultural variation among Hong Kong and US children. Due to culture variation influence, Chennai norms of Developmental test of VMI were established for age between 3 and 7 years by Ganapathy Sankar and Ramkumar in 2010, and also for age between 10 and 14 years has been established by D. Anbarasu and Divya Lakshmi in 2018 which is still unpublished. Therefore, the current study is intended to establish normative data of Developmental test of VMI for individuals between the age of 15 and 19 years among the Chennai population.
The present study aims to determine the normative values of VMI among Chennai individuals between the age of 15 and 19 years.
The objective of the study is a) to identify the individual performance on the developmental test of VMI and in the supplemental tests of VP and MC, b) to identify the gender difference in the performance on the developmental test of VMI and in the supplemental tests of VP and MC.
| Methodology|| |
This study is a quantitative cross-sectional research model. A total of four hundred participants of age between 15 and 19 years were recruited by means of convenience sampling method from schools and colleges located in different parts of Chennai to avoid geographical variation. Individuals age between 15 and 19 were recruited from the Academic standard of 10th–12th and also from 1st year of college.
The inclusion criteria were (a) participants of age group between 15 and 19 years (b) Both genders (c) participants with normal and corrected vision and (d) participants with normal and corrected hearing. Participants with motor impairment, intellectual impairment, and with a specified diagnosis were excluded from the study.
Beery–Buktenica Developmental Test of VMI, 6th Edition-Long-form and its supplemental standardized tests: VP and MC.
The Developmental test of VMI, developed by Beery is a standardized, norm-referenced assessment that is used to determine the level of integration between visual and motor systems in people from 2 years to 100 years. Beery VMI is a developmental sequence of 24 geometric forms to be imitated and copied with paper and pencil. The test is administrated within 10–15 min. The Beery VMI, 6th edition consists of supplemental tests of VP and MC which includes 30 items. The supplemental test of VP is to choose the correct geometric stimulus and the supplemental test of MC is to trace without going outside double-lined paths. The geometric forms are arranged with increased difficulty. The Beery VMI is used to find significant difficulties in VMI and to assess the effectiveness of educational and other intervention programs.
Reliability and Validity
Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and inter-rater reliability are of a high standard for the Beery VMI-6 with most coefficient exceeding 0.8. Evidence of content, construct, concurrent and predictive validity has been reported.
The score is calculated based on the number of geometric forms copied successfully. The response made is said to be correct or incorrect based on the criteria in the VMI manual. One (1) point is awarded for each correct response. Zero (0) point is awarded for each incorrect response. In the principal test of VMI, the score is calculated up to three consecutive failures. In the supplemental test of VP, the score is calculated up to three consecutive incorrect responses or 3 min, whichever comes first. In the supplemental test of MC the score is calculated up to 5 min.
The purpose and need of the study were described to the head of the institutions for getting permission to proceed the study. Parent consent forms were given to the concerned parents to inform and assent forms were given to college individuals to get consent to participate in the study. The developmental test of VMI and supplemental tests of VP and MC was administrated in a disturbance-free environment with sufficient light. The VMI tests were done as group administration of 10 individuals in a group with one investigator. The test was conducted after the participant was made to sit on the chair and table with an appropriate height. The instruction and scoring procedures were followed as per the guidelines given in the manual.
Data Analysis Procedure
The VMI data were collected by the duration of 4 months period of time. The Analysis of collected data was computed using the software IBM Corp. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 23.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp; 2015. Descriptive statistical analyses were conducted for the determination of mean and standard deviation (SD) of the principal test of VMI, supplemental tests of VP and MC scores of each age group. The inferential statistical method was applied to find the impact on age and gender. The performance scores of VMI, VP, and MC between age groups was analyzed using ANOVA. To test the difference between gender, a t-test was used.
| Results|| |
A total of 400 participants included 226 boys with a total percentage of 56.5% and 174 girls with a total percentage of 43.5%. Based on their chronological age, the total participants were divided into four groups. Group 1 consist of 100 children (25.0%) aged 15.0 years–15 years and 11 months; Group 2 consist of 97 children (24.3%) aged 16.0 years–16 years and 11 months; Group 3 consist of 106 children (26.5%) aged 17.0 years–17 years and 11 months; Group 4 consist of 97 children (24.3%) aged 18.0 years–18 years and 11 months. This shows the equal distribution of participants in each age group. [Graph 1] describe the gradual increase in the performance in visual motor integration and visual perception with age from 15.0 to 18.11 years as indicated by a VMI mean scores from 26.86 to 27.71, VP mean scores from 26.75 to 27.31, and MC mean scores from 26.48 to 26.38.
[Table 1] shows the mean and SD scores obtained by the performance of participants on the principal test of VMI and it also shows the impact of VMI on different age Group 1–Group 4. Analysis of the VMI scores between different age groups using ANOVA revealed that there is a significant statistical difference (F = 5.831, P = 0.001) between each chronological age. It means as their age increases the performance of VMI increases (level of significance-0.05).
|Table 1: The Performance of Study Participants on the Principal Test of Visual-motor Integration|
Click here to view
[Table 2] illustrates the mean and SD scores obtained by the performance of participants on the supplemental test of VP and it also illustrates the performance of VP on different age Group 1-Group 4. Analysis of the VP scores between different age groups using ANOVA shows that there is no significant difference (F = 1.434, P = 0.232) between each chronological age (Level of significance-0.05).
|Table 2: The Performance of Study Participants on the Supplemental Test of Visual Perception|
Click here to view
[Table 3] displays the mean and SD scores secured by participants on the Supplemental test of MC and also displays the effect of MC on the different age groups. Analysis of MC scores across age groups using analysis of variance revealed that there is no significant difference (F = 0.354, P = 0.786) between each chronological age.
|Table 3: The Performance of Study Participants on the Supplemental Test of Motor Coordination|
Click here to view
Analysis of gender difference in the principal test of VMI and supplemental test of VP and MC was done by using a t-test. It is based on the comparison of total VMI, VP, and MC separately between the male and female for the whole group of participants aged between 15 years and 19 years.
[Table 4] represents the Mean and SD scores based on the performance of the principal test of VMI between genders. Analysis of data to find a gender difference in VMI concluded that comparison of performance between genders on the principal test of VMI shows no significant difference (t = 1.46, P = 0.146) between genders in the principal test of VMI.
|Table 4: The Comparison of Performance between Genders on the Principal Test of Visual-motor Integration|
Click here to view
[Table 5] represents the mean and SD scores obtained by participants in the supplemental test of VP based on gender. Analysis of data to find a gender difference in VP concluded that comparison of performance between genders on VP shows a significant difference (t = 2.76, P = 0.006) between gender on the supplemental test of VP.
|Table 5: The Comparison of Performance between Genders on the Supplemental Test of Visual Perception|
Click here to view
[Table 6] illustrates the mean and SD scores based on the performance of the supplemental test of MC between genders. The comparison of performance between genders on the supplemental test of MC shows no significant (t = 1.00, P = 0.316) difference between genders on the supplemental test of MC.
|Table 6: The Comparison of Performance between Genders on the Supplemental Test of Motor Coordination|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
The main objective of the study was to establish normative data of aged between 15 and 19 years on Beery Developmental Test of VMI. Such normative data are also needed in occupational therapy clinical practice to assess and compare the outcome measure of visual motor intervention. The principal test of VMI and supplemental test of VP and MC was administrated over 400 participants in Chennai from normal school and college.
The result of this study showed a statistically significant difference in the performance of the principal test of VMI between the age groups 15 and 19 years. This finding supports the age-related developmental progression of VMI. The Developmental Test of VMI is related to the chronological age that means the performance of VMI increases as the chronological age increases. The VMI performance increase by developmental age because the test presents the drawing of 24 geometric forms, arranged in a developmental sequence,, from less to more complex. As the child grows there may be sequential development of gross and fine motor, attention and concentration, and eye-hand coordination. The result agrees with the Beery findings in 1996 that VMI performance is correlated with age. The result also concluded that there was no significant difference in the supplemental test of VP and MC between the age groups 15 and 19 years.
The comparison of performance between genders on the principal test of VMI showed no statistically significant difference between males and females. The comparison of performance between genders on the supplemental test of VP showed a significant difference between males and females. This result is likely supported by a study that observed the performance of Beery VMI in Canadian children, which revealed that there was a gender difference in VMI performance were the female Mean score was higher than the male mean score. The finding of gender difference in VP is agreeing to the fact of previous studies which shows that boys perform less than girls in handwriting throughout their Academic years., The comparison of performance between genders on the supplemental test of MC showed no significant difference.
- Convenience sampling method
- The socioeconomic Status of the participants is not considered and not equally distributed which might have been influenced the performance of VMI
- Individuals were engaged in extra curricular activities that includes dance, drums, sports, playing musical instruments which might have been influenced the performance of VMI.
VMI is very important to achieve in a child's academic performance, play, and activities of daily living. The current study established normative data of the developmental test of VMI among Chennai population in the age group of 15–19 years the established norms form the cut-off scores for the use of Beery VMI in the assessment and screening of individuals who find difficulty in handwriting, reading, mathematical calculation, and difficulty in play, etc., The established VMI norms scores can also be used as an outcome measure to find the effectiveness of intervention with individuals with visual-motor deficits.,
| Conclusion|| |
This study established the normative data of the developmental test of VMI among Chennai population in the age group of 15 to 19 years. Convenience sample of 400 participants were administrated with the Beery VMI-6th edition from normal schools and college in Chennai. The study found that age-related developmental progression of VMI between the ages according to their chronological age. This study showed a significant difference in the supplemental test of VP between the gender. Girls performance is higher than male performance. This norm can be used in Chennai for screening purposes and treatment planning.
We owe our sincere thanks to our Dean, SRM College of Occupational Therapy, Dr. U. Ganapathy Sankar Ph.D., for providing an opportunity to enlighten the knowledge in the field of research. We also immensely thank all the participants take part in the study.
Financial Support and Sponsorship
Conflicts of Interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Beery KE, Beery NA. The Beery-Buktencia Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (Beery VMI): Administration, Scoring, and Teaching Manual. 6th
ed. Minneapolis, MN: Pearson; 2010.
Sanghavi R, Kelkar R. Visual-motor integration and learning disabled children. Indian J Occup Ther 2005;37;33-5.
Lieberman LM. Visual perception versus visual function. J Learn Disabil 1984;17:182-5.
Dankert HL, Davies PL, Gavin WJ. Occupational therapy effects on visual-motor skills in preschool children. Am J Occup Ther 2003;57:542-9.
Case-Smith J, Jane Clifford O'Brien'. Occupational Therapy for children. 6th
ed. St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby Publications: 2010. p. 380.
Dewey D, Tupper DE, editors. The Science and Practice of Neuropsychology. Developmental Motor Disorders: A Neuropsychological Perspective. New York: The Guilford Press: 2004. p. 301-5.
Weil MJ, Amundson SJ. Relationship between visuomotor and handwriting skills of children in kindergarten. Am J Occup Ther 1994;48:982-8.
George's Dussart. Identifying the clumsy child in school: An exploratory study. Br J Occup Ther 1994;21:81-6.
Piek JP, Baynam GB, Barrett NC. The relationship between fine and gross motor ability, self-perceptions and self-worth in children and adolescents. Hum Mov Sci 2006;25:65-75.
Schoemaker MM, Kalverboer AF. Social and affective problems of children who are clumsy: How early do they begin? Adapted Phys Activit Quarterly 1994;11:130-40.
Decker SL. Cognitive and developmental influences in visual-motor integration skills in young children. Psychol Asses 2011;23:1010-6.
Chan PW. Comparison of visual motor development in Hong Kong and the USA assessed on the Qualitative Scoring System for the Modified Bender-Gestalt test. Psychol Rep 2001;88:236-40.
Ganapathy Sankar U, Ramkumar MG. Normative data of the developmental test of visual-motor integration for Chennai children. IJPOT 2010;4:30-3.
Beery KE. Form reproduction as a function of complexity. Percept Mot Skills 1968;26:219-22.
Polumbinski J, Melamed LE, Prinzo OV. Factor structure evidence for developmental levels of perceptual processing on the Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration. Psychol Schl 1986;23:337-41.
Couture M, Morin MF, Coallier M, Lavigne A, Archambault P, Bolduc É, et al
. Handwriting assessment of Franco-Quebec primary school-age students Can J Occup Ther 2016;83:269-80.
Berninger VW, Fuller F. Gender differences in orthographic, verbal, and compositional fluency: Implications for assessing writing disabilities in primary grade children. J Schl Psychol 1992;30:363-82.
Ziviani J, Wallen M. The development of graphomotor skills. In: Henderson A, Pehoski C. Hand Function in the Child: Foundations for Remediation. 2nd
ed.. St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier; 2006. p. 217-38.
Pryzwansky WB. The use of the developmental test of visual motor integration as a group screen instrument. Psychol Schl 1977;14:419-22.
Howe TH, Roston KL. Assessing handwriting intervention effectiveness in elementary school students: A two-group controlled study. Am J Occup Ther 2013;67:19-26.
Pfeiffer B, Moskowitz B, Paoletti A, Brusilovskiy E, Zylstra SE, Murray T. Developmental test of visual-motor integration (VMI): An effective outcome measure for handwriting interventions for kindergarten, first-grade, and second-grade students? Am J Occup Ther 2015;69:6904350010p1-7.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]